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Sociopolitical Ecology introduces the concept of `ecological field' to replace that of `ecosystem' and extends the boundaries of self-referential systems to a new, more complex level of analysis. Ecological field refers to an overarching system that contains many self-referential (or autopoietic) systems that interact in a common space, with human beings placed squarely in the middle of all natural ecological networks. The focus of this fascinating study is the interlocking pattern of relations among human beings within an ecological field - what the author designates as `sociopolitical ecology'. The book argues that most societies are not self-contained systems, but rather ecological fields, that is complexes of several interacting systems.